Popular Woodworking 2008-06 № 169, страница 44
All together, joint your two edges at the:
Prevention is key. Clamping a block of wood against the far comer when planing end grain prevents chipping when your plane reaches the end of your workpiece.
and can distinguish if the plane lists to one side or the other.
If I am planing the finished edge ofa part such as the edge ofa tabletop or a door, this technique is sufficient. After all, the edge only needs to look square. No one is going to place a square on the edge to make sure it is exactly 90°.
While about 90° is fine for an edge, it not good enough for a glue joint. So, try using this trick. Instead of jointing the edge of one board first and the other second, do them both at the same time. Determine which of the boards' surfaces will be up and place those two surfaces together. If the boards are wide and project more than several inches above your vise, use clamps to hold the two ends together. You do not want any gap between the boards' broad surfaces as you perform this trick. Joint the two edges at the same time. If
you're a bit off square, one side will balance the other. For example ifyou are one degree off square, one side of the joint will be 89°, while the other will be 91°. Together they add up to 180° and a flat panel.
Ends of boards frequently need to be planed to either trim them, make them square or to remove tool marks. Depending on the board's dimensions, you may very well do this with a jointer plane. When planing end grain you need to be aware that the far corner will probably chip. This results from the cor-nerbeingunsupported and the cornerbeing pulled away as the cutter passes over it. The answer is to clamp a block of wood against the far corner that will support it. Then, it is the far comer of this block that chips, and not your workpiece.
Woodworkers have always owned small planes for small jobs. Such planes could be held in one hand. Woodworkers have also always used low-angle planes for working end grain and trimming miters. So, when Stanley began developing metal bench planes, a low-angled block plane was a natural addition to the product line. Block planes are the most widely owned plane among woodworkers.
While technically not a bench plane, the block plane is frequently used at the bench. Stanley developed two similar, but different versions with different bedding angles. One is bedded at 20° and the other at 12°. Both these angles are so low that the cutter has to be inverted so that its bezel is up rather than down. With a stock only 6" long, the plane is
useful for small jobs, or for working in light places. The top of its knob is concave and this is where the user generally places the tip of the index finger. With the heel of the hand behind the plane and the finger on the knob, one can generate enough force to cut efficiently yet hold the plane stable with one hand.
However, for very fine or very small work, two hands create even more stability and control.
Like bench planes, block planes have a lever cap to hold the cutter securely. They also have lateral and longitudinal adjustment. Block planes are too small for a frog. So, on some models the mouth is adjusted by a sliding plate that can be moved closer to or farther from the cutting edge. Thisadjustment isdone by loosening the brass knob and pivoting a device called a quadrant. When the plate has reached the desired position, it is secured in place by retightening the brass knob.
Because a block plane is generally used on small or narrow parts rather than a wide surface, its cuttingedge, like that of the jointer, is ground straight.
Shaping and Fitting
The term "bench plane" seems to imply that these tools are only used for preparing stock. However, this is only a small fraction of what they can do. They are useful for shaping parts or for cleaning up parts that have been shaped. Long planes such as a jack or jointer can round or even roll an edge on a board. Small planes such as a smooth or a block will do the same for shorter edges. A plane can be used like a large spokeshave to smooth curved surfaces. 1 often use a plane to round the knuckles on a chair before beginning to carve.
Block plane. The concave knob of a block plane typically holds the tip of your finger while the heel of your palm holds the plane steady.
12 ■ Popular Woodworking June 2008